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At the cradle of science, said Albert Einstein, stands the mysterious. Exploring it is its motive, research is its tool. Thus, in addition to many internal laboratory analysis jobs, tesa Analytics often also receives external inquiries from scientific institutes, for example, from the area of antiquity research. In exceptional cases, the lab jumps in with their experts and the latest equipment to reveal one or the other secret, for example, regarding the legendary Tower of Babel.
The Bible makes history in two senses: On the one hand, as a Christian reference work; on the other hand, as a testimony of historical events. The erection of the Tower of Babel, described in the First Book of Moses, was an event in real life: The remains of an impressive building were uncovered in today’s territory of Iraq in 1913. No laboratory in the world can prove whether the tower construction led to language confusion and divisiveness. However, we can research whether the building was constructed as described in the Old Testament (see infobox) with bitumen (‘earth resin’) as a building material.
"It is truly remarkable that more than 2,500 years ago, inorganic admixtures were apparently deliberately added to the bitumen, which certainly increased the adhesive strength on stone."
Head of the tesa Analytics Laboratory
A fragment of one of the ancient Babylonian bricks from the fund of the Bible Museum in Münster was to provide information about traces of a black substance attached to it. High-tech methods, such as infrared spectroscopy, micro-tomography, and scanning electron microscopy – were used before Dr. Christian Brinkmann. The Head of the tesa Analytics Laboratory confirmed that the biblical building instructions did make sense: The bricks of the mighty tower have been unequivocally bonded with natural bitumen.
Bitumen or ‘mineral pitch’ forms in long geological periods due to the evaporation of the lower-boiling parts of crude oil and is therefore also called ‘natural asphalt’. When heated up, bitumen becomes kneadable, then viscous, and finally thin at temperatures around 150 degrees. After cooling, it returns to its original semi-solid state. It was produced already in ancient times and because of its sealing and malleable properties it was used for various handicraft purposes.
During excavations, the remains of several towers were found, which had been erected during the rule of King Nebuchadnezzar II (6th Century BC). One of them was particularly impressive, with a floor area of more than 8,000 square meters and a height of probably 75 to 90 meters. For the construction, people used “brick as a stone and earth resin as mortar” (Genesis 11.3). However, bitumen also plays a decisive role in other, at least equally significant, biblical passages. It is said that Moses’ mother abandoned her son, as an infant, in a cane basket, which she had glued “with earth resin and pitch” (Exodus 2.3), on the banks of the river Nile. There he was then found and adopted by a pharaoh’s daughter. Later he receives the Ten Commandments. It’s hard to imagine what would have happened to Moses if bitumen hadn’t waterproofed the basket. According to the Bible, Noah’s Ark was sealed with a mineral pitch by its builder (Genesis 6.14). It was known as an integral part of shipbuilding 12,000 years ago in the Middle East.
However, discoveries without any reference to the Bible also find their way to tesa. A Stone Age dagger from the local archeology department of the Lower Saxony region Schaumburger Landschaft has currently been brought to the laboratory. The approximately 4,000-year-old object is waiting to be examined. “In special cases – and if our capacities allow it –, we are happy to respond to such inquiries,” says Laboratory Manager Dr. Christian Brinkmann.
Rather profane than sacred: The finder had discovered the sharp-edged flintstone in the clayey soil while working on the foundations of his home. The grip shell is missing. Was it once fastened with raffia or leather straps? Did the historic all-purpose birch pitch adhesive hold the blade and handle it together? To answer these questions, you need state-of-the-art equipment and high-tech analytics. Therefore, Brinkmann’s team has examined the accidental archaeological find with instruments that allow chemical analyses at a magnification of up to 500,000 times.
The recordings show that residues of an organic substance adhere to the stone. Its structure strongly suggests that it was once it is adherent – it could well be birch pitch. “Only once we’ve analyzed it in more detail and compared our results with another birch pitch sample will we finally know more about it,” explains Dr. Christian Brinkmann. One thing is sure: Once all analyses are completed, the dagger will be returned to the finder, who wants to make it available to the local museum.
The brew obtained from birch bark is the first glue humans have ever home-made and used. The history of bonding dates back approx. Two hundred thousand years and thus to the Paleolithic Age. The birch tree’s whitish bark contains Betulin, extracted as an adhesive by heating it to 340 to 400 degrees. It is not clear how exactly the Stone Age people did that: Maybe by rolling up the bark tightly and then covering it with ash in an earth trough and carbonizing it? At least, that’s what science assumes today. Archaeological finds show that birch pitch was the glue of choice for tens of thousands of years. It was found during excavations at many camps and settlement sites in the Middle and New Stone Ages. Even in the Middle Ages, it was used for shanking, patching, or sealing. On various occasions, remains of birch pitch with tooth prints have been found. One might wonder then if the blackish mass was mankind’s first chewing gum! Since Betulin has anti-inflammatory properties, it could have been useful for oral hygiene.